English Articles

A Critical Study of Abdel Haleem’s New Translation of the Holy Qur’an

Dr.Muhammad Sultan Shah

The  Holy  Qur’an  is  a  divine  book  revealed  to  the  Prophet Muhammad  (peace  be  upon  him)  and  is  accepted  as  the  last scripture for human guidance by the adherents of Islam. It has been translated into various languages by both Muslims and nonMuslims. George Sale was the first to translate it into English directly from Arabic.  After him E.H.  Palmer,  J.M.Rodwell,Richard  Bell  and  Arthur  J.Arberry  gained  familiarity  among orientalists  for  their   renditions  of  the  Qur’an.  Two  Western converts  to  Islam  namely  Muhammad  Marmaduke  Pickthall  and Muhammad Asad published their translations that were widely read.  Among  Islamic  World,  Indian  Muslims  were  the forerunners  in  this  field.  Abdullah  Yusuf  Ali’s  translation  and commentary remained unparalleled in popularity for a long time. Some  interpretations  were  also  published  by  Ahmadis  like Maulavi Muhammad Ali,Sir Muhammad Zafrulla Khan and others. Some  Arab  scholars  including  an  Iraqi  Jew  N.J.Dawood  also translated  the  Holy  Qur’an.  Abdel  Haleem,an  Arab-British Muslim has brought out his rendering of the Holy Qur’an in the first decade of twenty-first century.

M.A.S.Abdel  Haleem  was  born  in  Egypt,  and  learned  the Qur'an by heart during his childhood. He was educated at al-Azhar University,  Cairo  (Egypt).  Later,  he  studied  in  the  United Kingdom and obtained his Ph.D. from the Cambridge University. He  has  been  teaching  Arabic  at  Cambridge  and  London Universities  since  1966.He  is  currently  a  Professor  of  Islamic Studies  at  the  School of Oriental and African Studies, University of   London(England)  and  the  editor  of  the  Journal  of  Qur'anic Studies.1He  was  made  an  Officer  of  the  Order  of  the  British Empire  (OBE)  in  the  2008  Birthday  Honours.2Professor  Abdel Haleem  was  recognized  for  his  services  to  Arabic  culture  and literature, and to inter-faith understanding.

He  has  published  several  works  in  the  field  of  Arabic  and Islamic  Studies. He  has  published  7  books  in  these  areas  and edited two other books. He has contributed chapters  in 16 books and encyclopaedias. His research papers appeared in the Journal of Quranic  Studies,  Bulletin  of  the  School of  Oriental  and  African Studies,  Islamic  Quarterly  and  Journal  of  Islam  and  ChristianMuslim  Relations.3He  has  special  interest  in  Arabic-English lexicography  and  Quranic  studies.  He  was  a  co-author  in Dictionary  of  Qur'anic  Usage4 and  English-Arabic  Business Dictionary.5Besides other books,he has authored his famous work entitled  “Understanding  the  Qur'an:Themes  and  Style”.6In  2004, Oxford  University  Press  published  his  translation  of  the  Qur'an into English including it in „Oxford World Classics‟ series.

The  English  translation  of  the  Holy  Qur‟an  by  Professor Abdel Haleem is a unique work because its author is an Arabic speaking Muslim who has been living in England since 1966.No other  translator  of  the  Holy  Qur‟an  has  such  mastery  of  both languages. Furthermore, he is a lexicographer fullyequipped with the knowledge of both classical and modern Arabic. He does not lag  behind  in  having  full  command  over  English.  Most  of  his predecessors  rendered  the  Holy  Qur‟an  into  English  using  the King James idiom that had been considered as the standard idiom from translating any religious scripture. That is why, his rendering manifests originality which is lacking in many other translations. The old usage and archaic words are very difficult to understand by  modern  reader.  Abdel  Haleem‟s  translation  is  in  modern  and plain English that flows nicely. Such language is easy to read and comprehend. He always opts for contemporary usage and sentence structure  and  avoids  confusing  phrases  .His  translation  is  an attempt to covey the timeless nature of the Qur‟an.

Andrew  Rippin  has  praised  the  title:  “The  Qur’an:  A  new translation.”7 Abdel Haleem directly calls it translation avoiding the  words  used  by  his  predecessors  in  their  titles.  Pickthall  and Asad,  great  Muslim  translators  from  the  West,  avoided  calling their versions „translations‟ and titled their works: “The Meaning of  the  Glorious  Qur‟an”8and  “The  Message  of  the  Qur‟an”9respectively.  Some  translators  have  called  their  versions „interpretations‟  and  still  others  have  used  “Translation  of  the Meaning  of  the  Noble  Qur‟an”.10Among  Muslim  translators, Hafiz Ghulam Sarwar titled  his rendering as “Translation of the Holy  Qur‟an”.11It  is  a  fact  that  all  translators  were  actually attempting to render the Qur‟an into English, whatever the title of their  work.  So  Abdel  Haleem  aptly  calls  it  a  translation  but  the word “new” will lose its meaning with the passage of time as the language is likely to change with time. However, it is strange that in same year 2004 when Abdel Haleem published his translation, another  translator  Dr.Thomas  Cleary  used  a  similar  title  “The Qur‟an:  A  New  Translation”  for  his  rendering  of  the  Holy Qur‟an.12

He  has  written  a  useful  introduction  which  contains  the life  of  Muhammad  (upon  whom  be  peace  and  greeting)  and  the historical background, the compilation of the Qur‟an, the structure of  the  Qur‟an:  Suras  and  Ayas,  Meccan  and  Medinan  Suras, stylistic features, issues of interpretation, a short history of English translations. The translator has also enumerated characteristics of his translation  under  various  sub-headings.  He  has  given  a chronology  of  the  Qur‟an  and  select  bibliography.  In  the  end  he has prepared an eighteen-page index that is helpful for researchers.

Abdel Haleem worked on his translation for nearly seven years13which appeared for the first time in 2004 and reissued in 2005 and 2008.It is hitherto being published without Arabic text but an edition under the title “The Qur‟an: English translation with parallel  English  text”  will  appear  this  year  as  well.  The  list  of contents contains the titles of chapters in Arabic and English. The chapters  and  verses  in  the  text  are  properly  numbered  making  it easy  to  consult  for  research  purposes.  To  differentiate  the  verse numbering  from  those  of  footnotes,  the  latter  are  marked  by English alphabets.

One  of  the  main  characteristics  of  this  translation  is  the brevity  exercised  by  the  learned  translator  that  is  not  possible without  mastery  of  both  the  languages.  Professor  Abdel  Haleem has used minimum words in his translation and exegetical notes. He  has  added  footnotes  where  there  is  extreme  need  of clarification or further explanation. In footnotes he refers to Arabic grammar  and  lexicography.  He  often  alludes  to  al-Mu‘jam  alWasit14and  occasionally  to  Lane‟s  Arabic-English  Lexicon15 for elucidation  of  Arabic  words.  Time  and  again,  he  refers  to  the famous  Muslim  commentator  Fakhr  al-Din  Razi‟s16 famous exegesis  to  justify  his  interpretation.  Imam  Raghib  Isfahani‟s Mufradat17and Zamakhari‟s  Kashshaf18are also refered to in his footnotes  at  few  places.  He  neither  refutes  or  alludes  to  any orientalist  translation  work.  Two  translations  by  Muslims—AbdullahYusuf  Ali  and  Muhammad  Asad—are  mentioned  in  his Select Bibliography19but in footnotes he has once referred to the latter.20

The translator has explained the purpose of this translation:

“This translation is intended to go further  than  previous works in accuracy, clarity, flow, and currency of language. It is written in modern, easy style, avoiding where possible the use of cryptic language or archaisms that tend to obscure meaning. The intention is to make  the Qur‟an accessible to everyone  who  speaks  English,  Muslims  or  otherwise, including the millions of people all over the world for whom the English language has become a lingua franca.”21

Abdel  Haleem  has  added  an  introduction  in  the  beginning  of each  surah  that  gives  a  contextual sense to the reader before the study  of  that  surah.  He  has  summarised  every  surah  without missing any important theme of it. His introduction opens with the information whether a  surah  is Makkan or Madinan. He has also told  the period during which it was revealed. He has discussed the nomenclature of each  surah  pointing out the verse from which it derives its name. For instance, he has said about  Surah al-Hujrat: “This  Medinan  sura  takes  its  title  from  the  reference  to  the Prophet‟s private rooms in verse 4.”22He has discussed historical background of some surahs. Referring to the history, he has told in the introduction to  Surat al-Fil  that it is a reference to the events that happened in 570 C.E., the  year of the Prophet‟s  birth, when the army of Abraha  (a Christian ruler of Yemen), which included war elephants, marched to attack Makkah, destroy the Ka‟ba,and divert pilgrims to the new the cathedral in San‟a.23He has referred to the verses containing important events or commandments. For example,  he  tells  in  introduction  to  Surah  al-Kahf  that  Dhu’lQarnayn is mentioned in verses 83-99 of this surah.24Abdel  Haleem‟s  translation  demands  a  comprehensive  study which is not possible in this article. An attempt has been made  to examine it critically that illustrates its merits and few lacunae.  He has  translated  basmalah  as  “In  the  name  of  God,  the  Lord  of Mercy, the Giver of Mercy!”25

He has used „mercy‟ in translating both divine epithets because rahman and rahim derive from the same root, translating them into two words with different roots,  like „Compassionate and Merciful‟ loses  the  connection.26Before  him,  Muhammad  Asad  has  also rendered  both  these  divine  attributes  with  the  same  word.  His translation  of  basmalah  reads:  “In  the  name  of  God,  the  Most Gracious, the Dispenser of Grace.”27According to Andrew Rippon the  translation  of  basmalah  has  the  merit  of  using  “mercy"  in both instances but does seem rather a mouthful.28

Abdel Haleem has translated verse1:1 as follows:

“Praise belongs to God, Lord of the Worlds.”29

The Arabic word al-hamd is translated as “Praise” ignoring definite article al-  prefixed to it. Talking on Fatiha:  The Opening of  the  Qur’an‟  in  his  book  “Understanding  the  Qur’an”,  he himself noted that the generic  al-  in Arabic make the word hamd encompass  all  praise30but  in  translation  he  could  not  convey  it. “Lord” cannot convey the literal meaning of Arabic “Rabb” but in English  it  cannot  be  translated  by  any  other  single  word.  Al-‘alamin  is  accurately  rendered  as  “the  worlds,” elucidating  it  in footnote  as  “all  the  worlds,  of  mankind,  angels,  animals,  plants, this world, the next, and so forth.”31If  al-‘alamin  is translated as worlds in one verse, it should be rendered as such everywhere in the Qur‟an. The translator has not done so in verse 21:107which has been translated as: “It was only as a mercy that We sent you[Prophet]  to  all  people.”32Here  al-‘alamin  is  translated  as  “all people”. The Prophet Muhammad  (peace be upon him)  is a mercy not only for people of this planet but all the worlds. According to a hadith  transmitted by  Imam Ahmad, the Apostle of Allah  (peace be upon him)  said, “Verily Allah has raised me as „a mercy for all the  worlds‟  and  „guidance  for  all  the  world‟.” 33So  his  mercy should  not  be  restricted  to  human  beings  or  this  world  only. Besides humans, he was a mercy for angels, jinn, birds, and even animals. His mercy also encompasses the next world. So, the verse should be translated as follows:“And We have not sent you but a mercy for all the worlds.”34

Abdel  Haleem  is  very  careful  in  translating  the  verses pertaining to Almighty Allah. He never used words like „plot‟ or „contrive‟  for  any  divine  activity.  In  the  following  examples  his translation  is  compared  to  Maulana  Abdul  Majid Daryabadi‟s(1892-1977)translation to see his care in this regard. Verse3:54

Daryabadi: And they plotted, and Allah plotted, and Allah is the Best of plotters.35

Abdel  Haleem:The[disbelievers]schemed  but  God  also  schemed; God is the Best of Schemers. 36

Verse8:30 

Daryabadi: They were plotting and Allah was plotting, and Allah is the Best of plotters.37

Abdel  Haleem:They  schemed  and  so  did  God:  He  is  the  best  of schemers.”38

Verse12:76

Daryabadi: In this wise We contrived for Yusuf.39

Abdel Haleem: In this way We devised a plan for Joseph. 40

Verse3:142

Daryabadi :Or, deem  ye that  ye shall enter the  Garden while  yet Allah hath not known those of you who have striven hard nor yet known the steadfast!41

Muhammad Ali, an Ahmadi  translator: Do  you think that you will enter the garden while Allah has not yet known those who strive hard from among you, and (He has not)known the patient?42

Abdel Haleem: Did you think you would enter the Garden without God first proving which of you would struggle  for the cause and remain steadfast.43

He  has  shown  veneration  for  the  Prophets  in  his  translation.  He has translated such verses with utmost care in which these chosen people of God are underlined. For instance, he has translated verse 12:24  very  carefully  which  tells  about  the  Prophet  Yusuf  (upon whom be greeting):

“She made for him, and he would have succumbed to her if he had not seen evidence of his Lord----We did this in order to keep evil and indecency away from him, for he was truly one of Our chosen servants.”44

Some orientalists were careless in translating the verses pertaining to  Mary  (Maryam),the  mother  of  Christ(„Isa).Look  at  the E.W.Lane‟s renderings of two verses:“She said,How shall  I have a son,  when a man hath not touched me, and I am not a harlot?” 45(12:20)

“O sister of Aaron, thy father was not a man of wickedness, nor was thy mother a harlot.”46(12:28)

Abdel Haleem has not used words like „harlot‟ for the mother and grandmother of a Prophet. His translation is as follows:“She said, “How can I have a son when no man has touched me?   I have not been unchaste.”47

“Sister  of  Aaron!  Your  father  was  not  an  evil man;  your  mother was not unchaste!”48

In  verse  66:12,  he  deviated  from  literal  meaning  to  show veneration  for  the  mother  of  Christ:  “  And  Mary,  daughter  of Imran, she guarded her chastity.”49

Abdel  Haleem  is  extremely  careful  in  case  of  the  Prophet Muhammad(peace  be  upon  him).In  verse  93:7,he  avoids  to  use words like „astray‟  or „wandering‟ and translates it as:“Did He not find you lost and guide you?” 50

Some  scholars  like  Muhammad  Asad  do  not  accept  the  night journey and the ascension as a physical experience and consider it only  a  spiritual  experience51but  Muhammad  Abdel  Haleem  has views  similar  to  the  majority  of  Muslims.  According  to  him, towards the end of the Meccan period God caused Muhammad,in the  space  of  a  single  night,  to  journey  from  Mecca  to  Jerusalem and from there to heavens and back again.52

The  Ahmadi  translators  like  Muhammad  Ali  and  Zafrulla  Khan have distorted the meaning of verses pertaining to Jesus and tried to prove that he died a natural death. Abdel Haleem has translated such  verses  carefully,  not  deviating  from  the  belief  that  he  was raised up by God. Consider the following examples:God said,  “Jesus, I will take you back and raise you up to Me.53

(Al „Imran3:55)

God raised him up to Himself. God is almighty and wise.54

(anNisa‟ 4:158)

Abdel Haleem has translated the Qur‟an on the basis of his own understanding and has not relied on any previous translator. His rendering is entirely different from other translation at many places. For instance, he translates verse16:67 as follows:“From the fruits of date palms and grapes you take sweet juice and wholesome provisions. There truly is a sign  in this for people who use their reason.”55

The  translator  has  translated  the  word  “sakar”  as  “sweet juice”  ,elaborating  in  footnote  that  it  means  „wine‟,  „juice‟,  or vinegar‟.56Pickthall57translated  it  as  “strong  drink”  ;Abdullah Yusuf Ali58as “wholesome drink” and Asad59as “intoxicants”.

The translator is living in twentieth century European world and is well aware of the scientific advancement in various fields. He has translated some verses pertaining to physical or biological worlds in a scientific way. Some examples are quoted below:

He has translated verse21:33 as follows:  “It is He who has created night and day, the sun and the moon, each floating in its orbit.”60

His  translation  of  verse96:2  is  worth-reading:  “He  has created  man  from  clinging  form.”61According  to  Zaid Elmarsafy,Abdel  Haleem  uses  the  more  accurate  „the  clinging form‟for alaq.62The other translators have rendered it as „clot‟,63 blood clot‟64 or „congealed blood‟65which is incorrect if modern embryological knowledge is kept is mind .There is no such stage as blood clot in whole development of human embryo.

He has translated verses 23:12-14 as follows:

“We created man from an essence of clay,  then We placed him as a drop of fluid in a safe place, then We made that drop into a clinging form, and We made that form into a lump of flesh, and We made that lump into bones, and We clothed  those  bones  with  flesh,  and  later  We  made  him into  other  forms--------glory  be  to  God,  the  best  of creators!”66

In translation of verses84:18-20,  he has not alluded to moon conquest. His rendering runs: “By the full moon, you will progress from  stage  to  stage.  So  why  do  they  not  believe.”67Dr.Muhammad  Tahir-ul-Qadri  translates  these  verses  as  follows: “And the moon when it appears full,  you will assuredly ride along stage  by  stage.  So,  what  is  the  matter  with  them  that(even  after witnessing  the  Truth  of  the  forecast  of  the  Qur‟an),they  donot believe.”68

Abdel Haleem is very careful in translating word “ohilla” in verses  2:173  and  5:3.His  translation  of  both  these  verses  is  as under:

“He  has  only  forbidden  you  carrion,  blood,  pig‟s  meat,  and animals over which any name other than God has been invoked.”69

“You  are  forbidden  to  eat  carrion;  blood;  pig‟s  meat;  any animal over which any name other than God has been invoked.”70

Pickthall has translated the first part of verse 2:173 as follows:

“He has forbidden you only carrion, and blood, and swine flesh,  and  that  which  has  been  sanctified to  (the  name  of)  anyother than Allah.”71

Abdul Majid Daryabadi translated it as follows: “He hath only  forbidden  unto  you  the  carcass  and  blood  and  the  flesh  of swine,  and  that  over  which  is  invoked  the  name  of  other  than Allah.”72

Sayyid  Abul   A„la  Mawdudi‟s  translation  runs  as:  “Allah has  only  forbidden  you  to  eat  what  dies  of  itself,  and  blood  and swine flesh and what has been consecrated to any other name than Allah.”73

„Abdullah Yusuf „Ali74and Muhammad Asad 75also failed to  translate  it  accurately.Among  the  English  translators,  Dr.Muhammad  Taqi-ud-Din  al-Hilali  and  Dr.Muhammad  Muhsin Khan  has  translated  correctly   this  verse  as  follows:  “He  has forbidden  you  only  the  Maytatah  (dead  animals),  and blood, and the flesh of swine, and that which is slaughtered as a scrifice for others than Allah (or has been slaughtered for  idols,  etc.,  on  which  Allah's  Name  has  not  been mentioned while slaughtering). 76

The  famous  verse  of  Surah  ar-Rahman  which  is  recited repeatedly  is  not  correctly  translated  by  famous  Muslim translators. Some examples are quoted here:“Then which of the favours of your Lord will ye deny?”---Abdullah Ysuf Ali77

“Which of it, of the favours of your Lord, that you deny?”---Muhammad M.Pickthall78

“Which,  then,  of  your  Sustainer‟s  powers  can  you disavow?”---Muhammad Asad89

None of these translators could convey the tathniyyah(dual number)  occurring  in  the  last  word  in  the  text  of  this  verse. Professor  Abdel  Haleem  succeeded  in  conveying  it  in  his translation:  “Which,  then,  of  your  Lord‟s  blessings  do  you  both deny?”80

Many  years before him  Stanley Lane-Poole rendered it into English in somewhat similar manner:  “Which,  then, of  your Lord‟s blessings do you both deny?”81

The  atmosphere  influences  any  person  and  there  is  a change in the thinking of an individual if he shifts from one land to another. Abdel Haleem has been living in the Great Britain, a pluralistic  society,  for  nearly  half  a  century.  This  experience  has also modified some of his ideas. For example, his views about veil are  different  from  the  orthodox  of  scholars  living  in  Islamic countries. He has translated verse33:59 as follows:

 “Prophet,  tell  your  wives,  your  daughters,  and  women believers  to  make  their  outer  garments  hang  over  them  so  as  to recognized  and  not  insulted:  God  is  most  forgiving,  most merciful.”82

In  footnote  he  says  that  the  Arabic  idiom  adna  aljilbab means „make it hang low‟, not „wraparoud‟. 83

He  has  translated  divine  commandment  “wa  lataqulu thalathah”  in  verse4:171  as  “and  do  not  speak  of  „Trinty‟”84instead of “and say not „Three‟ ” 85Perhaps he softens  the strict refutations of Christian belief unknowingly.Andrew Rippin says,“I am impressed with Abdel Haleem's work  and  I  will  undoubtedly  continue  to  work  through  it  (with Arberry  always  close  at  hand).  In  part,  simply  because  it  is  a pleasing  book  to  work  with  physically,  having  been  nicely designed and printed.”86

Professor David  F.Ford  calls it Professor Haleem‟s major scholarly achievement.87

Khaleel  Mohammad  describes  this  translation  as  falling short  in  some  respects  but  also  praises  it  due  to  its  language, saying  ,  “The  preciseness  of  English  is  certainly  commendable, but  there  are  problems  that  show  that  Abdel-Haleem  has incorporated  his  doctrinal  bias  into  his  translation….  AbdelHaleem has done a good job.”88

In the  first decade of the current  century there  have been many  translations  of  the  Holy  Qur‟an  by  scholars  with  diverse backgrounds.  Laleh  Bakhtiar,  the  first  woman  translator  of  the Holy  Qur‟an  in  English,  published  “The  Sublime  Qur‟an”.89

Similarly, Arab Scholars Muhammad Abdel Haleem  and Ahmad Zaki Hammad90

Englished the Muslim Scripture. Dr.  Muhammad Tahir-ul-Qadri91from Pakistan and Maulana Wahiduddin Khan92from  India  published  English  versions  of  the  Qur‟an  after  their Urdu  translations.  Dr  Syed  Vickar  Ahmad  sent  to  press  his rendering  under  title  “The  Glorious  Qur‟an:A  Simplified Translation  for  the  Young  People”  in  America.93

An  American convert and Shadhili mystic Shaykh Abdullah Nooruddeen Durkee published  “The  Tajwidi  Quran”having  transliteration  with meanings  rendered  in  early  21stcentury  American  English.94

Sayyid  Ali  Quli  Qarai  from  Iran  brought  out  Shi‟  ite  version.95Dr.Shabbir Ahmed‟s “The Qur‟an as it explains itself ” appeared online in 2007 which represents viewpoint of rejectors of Hadith.96

Dr  Thomas  Cleary,  a  non-Muslim,  also  published  his  English version.97

Among these only the translations by Abdel Haleem and Tahir-ul-Qadri have been widely read. Due to its language, Abdel Haleem‟s  translation  is  expected  to  replace  the  translation  by Abdullah Yusuf Ali that has been regarded as unparalleled since its publication.

References:

1.  Abdel Haleem,M.A.S.,  The Qur'an: A new translation  ,Oxford World's  Classi
cs  Hardcovers  Series(Oxford,  UK:  Oxford University Press,2004)p.i

2.  The  London  Gazette,  No.58792,  Supplement  No.1(14  June 2008)p.B10

3.  http://www.soas.ac.uk/staff/staff30518.php

4.   Abdel Haleem, Muhammad and Badawi , Elsaid M.,Dictionary of Qur'anic Usage.
 (E.J. Brill, 2005)

5.   Abdel-Haleem,  Muhammad  and  Kay,  Ernest  (1984)  EnglishArabic  Business
  Dictionary  (London:  Graham  &  Trotman,1984)

6.  Abdel-Haleem,  Muhammad  (1999)  Understanding  the Qur'an:Themes and 
Style. (London: I B Tauris, 1999)


7.   Andrew Rippin, Two New Translations of the Qur‟an, HMideast-Medieval, H-Net
 Reviews. December, 2004.  URL:http://www.h-net.org/reviews/showrev.php?id=10080

8.   Pickthall,  Muhammad  Marmaduke,  The  Meaning  of  the Glorious  Qur‟an  
(Birmingham:  Islamic Dawah  Centre International, 2008)

9.   Muhammad Asad,  The Message of the Qur‟an  (Gibraltar: Dar al-Andalus, 
198)

10.  Khan,  Muhammad  Muhsin  and  Al-Hilali,  Muhammad  Taqiud-Din,Translation
 of the Meanings of the Noble Qur‟ ān.

11.  Ghulam  Sarwar,  Hafiz,  Translation  of  The  Holy  Qur‟an (London and Wok
ing: Unwin Brothers Limited, n.d.)

12. Cleary,  Dr.  Thomas,  The  Qur‟an:  A  New  Translation  (USA: Starlatch, 
July2004) pp.301

13. Professor  Abdel Haleem‟s email to the author dated February 1,2010.

14. Abdel  Haleem,M.A.S.,  The  Qur'an:  A  new translation,pp.15,20,267,271,
 273,345,392,398

15.  Ibid.pp.5,118

16. Ibid.pp.61,64,77,78,90,96,97, 196,198,215,380,416,418

17. Ibid.p.76

18. Ibid.pp.239,275,441

19. Ibid.p.xxxix

20. Ibid.p.9

21. Abdel Haleem,M.A.S.,The Qur‟an:A New Translation, p.xxix

22. Ibid,p.338

23. Ibid,p.437

24. Ibid,p.161

25. Ibid,p.3

26. Abdel  Haleem,  Muhammad,  Understanding  the  Qur‟an:Themes and Styles 
(London, New York:I.B.Tauris,1999)p.16

27. Muhammad Asad, The Message of the Qur‟an, p.1

28. Andrew Rippin,Two New Translations of the Qur‟an,HMideast-Medieval, H-Net 
Reviews. December, 2004.  URL: http://www.h-net.org/reviews/showrev.php?id=10080

29. Abdel Haleem,M.A.S.,The Qur‟an:A New Translation, p.3

30. Abdel Haleem,Muhammad,Understanding the Qur‟an:Themes and Styles,p.17

31. Abdel Haleem,M.A.S.,The Qur‟an:A New Translation, p.3

32. Ibid,p.208

33. Ahmad b.Hanbal, Al-Musnad (Bayrut; Lubnan: Al-Maktab alIslami, 1398/1978)
Hadith23757,23361

34.  Muhammad  Tahir-ul-Qadri,Dr.,The  Holy  Qur‟an(English Translation) 
 Irfan-ul-Qur‟an(London:Minhaj-ul-Quran International,2006)p. 556

35.  Daryabadi,Abdul  Majid,  Maulana,  Tafsir  ul  Qur'an: Translation  and 
 Commentary  (Karachi:Darul-Ishaat,1991) 1:232

36. Abdel Haleem,M.A.S.,The Qur‟an:A New Translation, p.38

37. Daryabadi,Abdul  Majid,  Maulana,  Tafsir  ul  Qur'an: Translation and 
Commentary, 2:189

38. Abdel Haleem,M.A.S.,The Qur‟an:A New Translation, p.112

39.  Daryabadi,Abdul  Majid,  Maulana,  Tafsir  ul  Qur'an: Translation and
 Commentary, 2:386

40. Abdel Haleem,M.A.S.,The Qur‟an:A New Translation, p.150

41.  Daryabadi,Abdul  Majid,  Maulana,  Tafsir  ul  Qur'an: Translation and 
Commentary,1:268  Al-Qalam December 2010        A Critical Study of Abdel 
Haleem’s …………. (13)

42.    Muhammad Ali,Maulvi,The Holy Qur-„an Containing Arabic Text  With  
English  Translation  and  Commentary(Lahore:Ahmadiyya Anjuman-i-Ishaat-
i-Islam, 1920) p.181

43. Abdel Haleem,M.A.S.,The Qur‟an:A New Translation, p.44

44. Ibid,p.146

45.  Lane,E.W.,Selections  from  the  Kur-„an,  edited  by  Stanley Lane- 
Poole (London:Trubner $ Co.,1879)p.152

46. Ibid,p.153

47. Abdel Haleem,M.A.S.,The Qur‟an:A New Translation, p.192

48. Ibid

49. Ibid,p.381

50. Ibid,p.425

51. Muhammad Asad,The Message of the Qur‟an pp.996-98

52. Abdel Haleem,M.A.S.,The Qur‟an:A New Translation, p.175

53. Ibid,p.

54. Ibid,p.

55. Abdel Haleem,M.A.S.,The Qur‟an:A New Translation, p.170

56. Ibid

57.  Pickthall,Muhammad  Marmaduke,The  Meaning  of  the Glorious Qur‟an,p.
164

58. Yusuf  Ali,A.,The  Holy  Qur‟an:  Translation  and Commentary,p.673

59. Muhammad Asad,The Message of the Qur‟an ,p.404

60. Ibid,p.204

61. Ibid,p.428

62. Zaid  Elmarsafy,  Manifesto  of  a  New  Translation  of  the

Qur‟an: The Politics of “Respect” and End(s) of Orientalism,

Britain  and  the  Muslim  World:Historical  PerspectivesUniversity of Exeter,
17-19 April 2009,p.4

63.  Pickthall,Muhammad  Marmaduke,The  Meaning  of  the Glorious Qur‟an,p.388;
Daryabadi,  Abdul  Majid,Tafsir-ul-Qur‟an  (Islamabad:  IslamicBook Foundation,
n.d.) Vol.4,p515

64. Arberry,A.J.,The  Koran  Interpretted(Oxford:Oxford University Press,1985)
p.651

65.  Ysuf  Ali,A.,The  Holy  Qur‟an:  Translation  and Commentary,p.1761

66. Abdel Haleem,M.A.S.,The Qur‟an:A New Translation, p.215

67. Ibid,p.415 Al-Qalam December 2010        A Critical Study of Abdel
 Haleem’s …………. (14)

68. Muhammad  Tahir-ul-Qadri,Dr.,The  Holy  Qur‟an(English Translation)
 Irfan-ulQur‟an,p.1025

69. Abdel Haleem,M.A.S.,The Qur‟an:A New Translation, p.19

70. Ibid,p.67

71. Pickthall,Muhammad  Marmaduke,The  Meaning  of  the Glorious Qur‟an,p.21

72. Daryabadi,Abdul  Majid,  Maulana,  Tafsir  ul  Qur'an: Translation and 
Commentary, 1:105

73. Maududi,Towards Understanding the Qur‟an 1:126

74. Yusuf  Ali,A.,The  Holy  Qur‟an:  Translation  and Commentary,pp.67-68

75. Muhammad Asad,The Message of the Qur‟an ,p.35

76.  Muhammad  Taqi  al-Din  al-Hilali  and  Muhammad  Muhsin Khan,  The  
Noble  Qur'an  in  the  English  Language:  A Summarized Version of At-Tabari,
 Al-Qurtubi, and Ibn Kathir with  Comments  from  Sahih  al-Bukhari  (Riyadh: 
 Darussalam Publishers, 1996)p.44

77. Ysuf  Ali,A.,The  Holy  Qur‟an:  Translation  and

Commentary,p.1473

78. Pithall,Muhammad Marmaduke,The Meaning of the Glorious Qur‟an(Birmingham:
Islamic  Dawah  Centre International,2008)p.333

79. Muhammad Asad Message of the Qur‟an ,p.824

80. Abdel Haleem,The Qur‟an:A New Translation, p.353

81. Lane-Poole,The  Speeches  &  Table-Talk  of  the  Prophet Mohammad
 (London:Macmillan and Co.,1882)p.27

82. Abdel HaleemM.A.S.,The Qur‟an:A New Translation, p.271

83. Ibid

84. Ibid,p.66

85.  Pickthall,Muhammad  Marmaduke,The  Meaning  of  the

Glorious Qur‟an, p.66

86. Andrew Rippin,Two New Translations of the Qur‟an,HMideast-Medieval, H-Net 
Reviews. December, 2004.  URL: http://www.h-net.org/reviews/showrev.php?id=10080

87. Michael  Ipgrave(ed.),Scriptures  in  Dialogue.  Christians  and Muslims 
studying the Bible and the Qur‟an  together, (Church House Publishing, London 
2004) pp.xi-xii.

88. Khaleel  Mohammed,  Assessing  English  Translations  of  the Qur'an,
 Middle East Quarterly,Vol. xii,No.2,Spring 2005, pp. 58-71

89.  Laleh  Bakhtiar,The  Sublime  Qur‟an(USA:Kazi  Publications Inc.,2007)

90.  Hammad,Ahmad Zaki,Dr.,The Gracious Qur‟an:A Modern Phrased Interpretation
  in  English  (USA:Lucent  International  LLC,  2007)2Vols.

91.  Dr.Muhammad Tahir-ul-Qadri published his Urdu translation „Irfan al-Qur‟an 
in 1991 for the first time from Minhaj-ul-Qur‟an Lahore. Its  19the dition  was
  issued  in  September  2006.The  author  himself translated it into English
 and was published in July 2006 by Minhaj ul-Quran International London but
 its sale began in 2009.

92.  Wahiduddin  Khan,Maulana,The  Quran  Translation(Goodword Books,2009).
His  Urdu  Translation  entitled  “Tazkir  al-Qur‟an”  was published in 1983.

93.  Vickar  Ahmed,Dr.Syed,The  Glorious  Qur‟an:A  Simplified Translation  
for  the  Young  People(USA:Tehrike  Tarsile Qur‟an,2003)

94.  Durkee,A.Nooruddeen,The  Tajwidi  Qur‟an(Charlottesville  VA:AnNoor
 Educational Foundation,2003)

95.  Qarai,SayyidAli  Quli,The  Qur‟an  with  an  English Paraphrase
(Qom:Centre  for  the  Translation  of  the  Holy Qur‟an‟2003)

96.  Shabbir Ahmed,Dr.,The Qur‟an as it explains itself,2007

97.  Cleary,Dr.Thomas,  The  Qur‟an:  A  New  Translation  (USA: Starlatch, 
July 2004) pp.301