English Articles

HAZRAT BABA  FARID-UD-DIN MUS'UD

 

 *Dr Muhammad Sultan Shah
Name and Lineage:
    Baba Farid's name is Shaikh Farid-ud-Din Mas'ud Ganj-i-Shakar. He 
was born at Kahtwal near Multan. His exact date of birth is unknown. 
Even there is difference among historians about his year of birth. 
According to Islamic calendar his year of birth was 569, 571 or 584. 
According to Khaliq Ahmad Nizami, Baba Farid was born sometime in 571 A.
H./1175 A.D. His father's name was Shaikh Jamal-ud-Din Sulaiman and
 mother's Qarsum Bibi. His pedigree table joins on the upper side with 
the second Caliph, Umar Faruq (may Allah be pleased with him). His 
genealogical table is as under:
1:    Shaikh Farid-ud-Din Mas'ud.
2:    Shaikh Jamal-ud-Din Sulaiman
3:    Shaikh Shu'aib
4:    Shaikh Muhammad Ahmad
5:    Shaikh Yusuf
6:    Shaikh Shihab-ud-Din (Farrukh Shah Kabuli)
7:    Shaikh Fakhr-ud-Din Mahmud
8:    Shaikh Sulaiman
9:    Shaikh Mas'ud
10:    Shaikh Abdullah Wa'iz  al-Asghar  
11:    Wa'iz-Akbar Abul-Fath
12:    Shaikh Ishaq
13:    Shaikh Nasir
14:    Shaikh Abdullah
15:    Hadrat Umar Faruq, Amir-ul-Muminin
Religious Education:
    Baba Farid received his early education at his native village 
*  Chairperson, department of Arabic, Islamic Studies,G.C university 
Lahore.
Kahtwal. Then he reached Multan at the age of 18 years. He joined a 
religious institution in the Mosque of Maulana Minhaj-ud-Din Tirmidhi 
where he memorized the entire text of the Holy Qur'an. He also studied 
Muslim Law (Fiqh) here. Baba Farid went to Qandhar and received 
religious education for five years.
Disciple of Khawaja Bakhtiar Kaki (R.A):
    Baba Farid was a disciple of Khawaja Qutab-ud-Din Bakhtiar Kaki who
 was a famous Chishti saint. When Baba Farid was a student of a madrash
 at Multan, he met his spiritual guide Khawaja Bakhtiar Kaki who had 
come from Aush and stayed in the Mosque of Maulana Minhaj-ud-Din. 
According to one tradition Baba Farid took the oath of allegiance (bay'
at) at the hand of Khawaja Bakhtiar Kaki after a short conversation but
 according to other report he accompanied Khawaja when he left Multan 
and was admitted into his disciple ship at Delhi. 
His Spiritual Chain:
    Baba Farid belongs to the "Chishti Order" of Mysticism. There are 17
 links or chains between him and the Holy Prophet (Allah's peace and 
blessing be upon him). The chain runs as under:
1.    Shaikh Farid-ud-Din Mas'ud Ganj-i-Shakar (d. Muharram 5,668 A.H,
 buried at Pakpattan).
2.    Shaikh Qutub-ud-Din Bakhtiar Kaki (d. Rabi al-Awwal 14,  635 A.H,
 buried at Delhi)

3.    Khawaja Mu'in-ud Din Ajmiri (d. Rajab 6,   633 A.H, buried at 
Ajmer)
4.    Khawaja Uthman Haruni (d. Shawwal 6,   617 A.H, buried at Makkah 
Mukarramah) 
5.    Khawaja Haji Sayyad Sharif Zindani (d. Rajab 10, 612 A.H, buried 
at Zandana)

6.    Khawaja Qutb-ud-Din Maudaud Chishti (d. Rajab 1,527 A.H, buried 
at Chist near Herat, Afghanistan)
7.    Khawaja Abu Yusuf Chishti (d. Rajab 3, 459 A.H, buried at Chist)
8.    Khawaja Abu Muhammad bin Ahmad Chishti (d. Rabi al-Awwal 14,   
411 A.H, buried at Chisht)
9.    Khawaja Abu Ahmad Chishti (d. Jamadi al-Thani 3,  355 A.H, burried
 at Chisht)
10.    Khawaja Abu Ishaq Shami Chishti(d. Rabi al-Thani 14,   329 A.H, 
burried in Syria)
11.    Khawaja Mumshad Dinwari (d. Muharram 4,   298 A.H. burried at 
Basra)
12.    Khawaja Abu Hubairah Amin-ud-Din Basri (d. Shawwal 7,282 A.H., 
burried at Basra)
13.    Khawaja Hudhaifah Mar'ashi (d. Shawwal, 14,   207 A.H, burried 
at Basra)
14.    Khawaja Sultan Ibrahim Adham Balkhi (d. Shawwal 1,   162 A.H 
buried at Aqleem, Syria)
15.    Khawaja Abul Farid Fudail bin Ayyad (d. Rabi-ul-Awwal 3,  187 
A.H buried at Makkah)
16.    Khawaja Abdul Wahid bin Zayd (d. Safar 27, 176 A.H buried at 
Basra)
17.    Khawaja Hasan Basri (d. Muharram 4,   110 A.H, buried at Basra)
18.    Sayyed Ali bin Abi Talib (d. Ramadan 21,   40 A.H. burried at 
Najaf-e-Ashraf)
19.    Hadrat Sayyadina Muhammad Mustafa (upon whom be peace and 
greeting) (demise on 12th Rabi-ul Awwal, 11 A.H. burried at Madinah 
Munawwerah)
His tours through Islamic world:
    Prof. Khaliq Ahmad Nizami did not accept Baba Farid's any tour to 
Islamic centers except his journey to Qandhar to complete his education
 that was under took according to the advice of his Shaikh Hazrat 
Bakhtiar Kaki. Nizami has quoted the following reason:
"Baba Farid's spiritual teacher being in India, it was hardly necessary 
for him to roam about in distant lands with unsettled conditions." 
Sabah-ud-Din Abdur Rahman in "Bazm-e-Sufiyah does not agree to Nizami's
 views. Baba Farid met Shaikh Shihabuddin Suhrawardi at Baghdad and was
 impressed by his knowledge and piety. He used to teach his book 
"Awarif al-Ma'arif" to his disciple. Shaikh Nizamuddin Auliya also 
learnt this book with Baba Sahib. It proves that the saint had visited 
the Holy city of Baghdad. He also met some saints in the surrounding of
 Baghdad. It is also narrated that Baba Farid met some mystics at 
Bukhara and Badakhshan. His stay for few days at al Quddus is also 
described. 
Khilafat:
    Baba Farid was a pious man who used to devote most of his time in 
prayers and remembrance of Allah. Khawaja Bakhtiar Kaki, his spiritual 
teacher has assigned him a small cell in his Khanqah where Khwaja Farid
 remained busy in devotions and prayers according to the instruction of
 his Shaikh. Here he was bestowed with Khilafat by his Murshid and grand
 Murshid jointly. Prof Khaliq Ahmad has described the event in the 
following words:
"Khawaja Mu'in-ud-Din Chishti happened to visit Delhi again. When he 
saw Baba Farid he remarked: Baba Bakhtiar! You have caught a noble 
falcon, which will not built his nest except on the Holy tree of Heaven.
 Farid is a lamp that will illuminate the Silsilah of Durweshes. 
Khawaja Mu'in-ud-Din then asked his disciple to bestow spiritual gifts 
and blessings on Baba Farid, but Shaikh Qutb-ud-Din apologized that in 
the presence of his master he could not have the courage to bestow 
anything on him. Thereupon both the saints blessed Baba Farid. It was 
a unique honor in the history of the Chishti Silsilah. No saint before 
him, or even after, was thus blessed by the master and the master of his
 master.   
Stay at Hansi:
    After completion of his spiritual training under his master, Baba 
Farid settled in Hansi. He stayed there for about two decades, and then 
proceeded to Ajodhan.
Settled at Ajodhan:
    Baba Farid was at Hansi when his Shaikh sad demise occurred. He 
reached Delhi on the fourth day. Qadi Hamid-ud-Din Nagauri had been 
entrusted with Khirqah, dastaar and wooden sandals of his master and
had been directed to hand over these things to Baba Farid. He fulfilled
 his duty and delivered the Holy trust to Baba Farid. He offered two 
Rak'ats of prayer and put the Khirqah on his head. He became the 
spiritual successor of Shaikh Bakhtiar Kaki but soon he decided to leave
 Delhi. He reached Hansi and stayed there. Later on, he reached
Ajodhan (now Pak Pattan) and settled there. He established a Khanqah, 
which became the center of Chishti order.
Preaching the Non-Muslims:
    Baba Farid was such Muslim saint who had contacts with Hindu Jogis.
 Sometimes they used to discuss some issue with him. A number of non-
Muslims embraced Islam at his hands. A Hindu jogi Shambhu Nath, a depth
 in magic came to Baba Farid and entered Islam by the blessing of the 
saint. Some tribes of the Punjab claim to have been converted to Islam 
by Farid-ud-Din Mas'ud. These include:
    1.    Sial            2.    Sarhangwalian
    3.    Bahliyan        4.    Adhakan
    5.    Jhakar walian        6.    Bakkan
    7.    Hakan            8.    Sian
    9.    Khokaran.

His Demise:
     Baba Farid died at Ajodhan (now Pak Pattan) on Muharram 5,   664 A.
H/October 15, 1265. It is told that he rose up to offer his Isha prayer
 with the congregation (Salat bil Jama'ah) but he could not do so 
because he became unconscious. He opened his eyes after sometime and 
inquired; "Have I offered my prayer". The attendants replied,"Yes. But 
Baba Farid said, "Let me offer my prayer once again. Who knows what is 
going to happen?" He offered his prayer again and became unconscious for
 the second time. After a short while he came out of coma and asked the
 same question. He offered his prayer for the third time and became 
unconscious for the third time. He went into eternal sleep while 
uttering "Ya Hayy Ya Qayyum."
His Tomb:
    A man offered Baba Farid of constructing a house of baked bricks but
 the Shaikh did not accept it. He built a dome over Baba's grave after
 his demise. Firuz Shah Tughlaq later repaired this tomb. During the 
last 700 years his tomb has been one of the most venerated centres of 
pilgrimage for the people of the sub-continent. Hindus, Muslims and 
Sikhs alike hold him in high esteem. Numerous rulers including Timur and
 Akbar, have visited his grave for spiritual blessings. According to 
Dr Bakhshish Singh Nijjar the shrine of Baba Farid attracts crowds of 
devotees, its sanctity being acknowledged as far as Afghanistan and 
Central Asia. The principal festival is held in the month of Muharram.  
His Descendants:
    Almighty Allah has blessed Baba Farid with five sons and three daugh
ters. Their names are the following:
1.    Khawaja Nasir-ud-Din
2.    Khawaja Shihab-ud-Din
3.    Shaikh Badr-ud-Din Sulaiman
4.    Shaikh Nizam-ud-Din
5.    Shaikh Ya'qub
6.    Bibi Musturah
7.    Bibi Sharifah
8.    Bibi Fatimah
His Spiritual Successors:
    Baba Farid was such saint who spread Chishti order in India at large
 scale.
    Historians have mentioned his spiritual successors in their books. 
The most among them are the following:
1.    Shaikh Nizam-ud-Din Auliya.
2.    Shaikh Ala-ud-Din Ali bin Ahmad Sabir
3.    Shaikh Jamal-ud-Din Hanswi
4.    Maulana Badr-ul-Ishaq
5.    Shaikh Najib-ud-Din Mutawakkil
6.    Shaikh Arif
7.    Maulana Fakhr-ud-Din Safahani
    Two of his Khalifah's Shaikh Nizamuddin of Delhi and Alauddin Ali 
bin Ahmad Sabir of Kalyar became spiritual heads of two famous branches
 of Chishtiyya order known as Nizamiyya and Sabriyya.