English Articles

NON-MUSLIMS SPEAK HIGHLY OFSHAYKH NIZAMUDDIN AULIYA

*  Dr. Muhammad Sultan Shah

    Muslim mystics preached Islam in the Indian sub-continent adopting
the preaching methodology of the blessed Prophet Muhammad (upon whom be
peace and greeting).They had no prejudice for the followers of other
religions. It was this absence of class prejudice which constituted the
real strength of Islam in India, and enabled it to win many converts
from Hinduism(1). Due to the respect and tolerance extended by these
Sufis, they commanded reverence even among non-Muslims. Therefore, it is
not surprising that they were as much revered by the Hindus as were the
Hindu Gurus and ascetics, all of them being regarded by the Hindus as
being of the same mould. Khwaja Nizam-ud-din Auliya followed the foot
steps of his predecessors like Khwaja Mu'in al-Din Chishti, Khwaja
Bakhtiar
Kaki, Shaikh Farid al-Din Mas'ud and never closed his doors for the
adherents of other religions. Some extracts are being quoted  in which
the writers having other faiths have eulogized Khwaja Nizam-ud-din
Auliya.

Bruce B. Lawrence:
    In many ways, Nizam-ud-din represents the pinnacle of the early
Chishti Silsilah. He had begun a promising career as a scholar in Delhi,
but gave it up to become a disciple and 
*  Chairperson, Department of Arabic and Islamic Studies, GC 
University  Lahore.
eventually the principal successor of  Farid-ud-din. There were several
stars which comprised the galaxy of Farid-ud-din's company. They
included the Shaykh's own progeny - five sons and three daughters -
many of whom emulated his ascetic 
devotions. There was also Jamal ad-din Hansawi, an eminent poet and
astute counselor; Najib ad-din Mutawakkil, the younger brother of Farid
ad-din and his alter ego (insofar as either saint could be said to have
possessed an ego); and Sabir 'Ali, the mysterious, terrorizing zealot
of Kalyar in northern Uttar Pradesh. All made substantial contributions
to the growth of Chishti influence among the Indian Muslims of their
generation. Yet Nizam ad-din outshone them: in humor, in pathos, in love
and in poetry he was an exemplar whom many reckon as the greatest Indo-
Muslim saint of all time. His stature in Delhi was enhanced through his
association with the poets, Amir Hasan and Amir Khusrau, as well as
with the nonpareil of historians, Diya ad-din Barani. The greatest
achievement of Nizam ad-din, however, was to establish the provincial
dispersion of the Chishti order on a firm basis. In the opinion of some,
including Barani, Nizam ad-din admitted too many men into the Chishti
Order as his disciples. History, nonetheless, bears out the wisdom of
his open-ended policy, even as it attests to the inspiration of his
ceaseless quest for truth. To far flung areas of Uttar Pradesh,
Rajasthan, Gujarat, Bihar, Bengal and the Deccan, Nizam ad-din sent
able disciples well-versed in Chishti practices yet sensitive to the
needs of the local populace. Many of them are still venerated in the
places where they first planted the Chishti banner.
    Shortly before his death, after having directed the activities of
the Chishti Order for more than half a century, Nizam ad-din appointed
as his principal successor a man who, if we accept the testimony of
recorded sayings from both saints, was almost opposite to him in
temperament. Nasir ad-din Mahmud "Chiragh-i dihli" (d. 1356 A.D.),
struggled with the burdens of a Sufi Shaykh. He constantly longed for
the reclusive life which Nizam ad-din had ordered him to abandon.(2)

Simon Digby:
    Nizam-ud-din Awliya' Chishti(d.1325),the most powerful shaykh of the
capital city at the time when the power of Delhi Sultanate itself had
attained its greatest extent at the beginning of the fourteenth century,
was given by his followers the honorific of Sultan al-masha'ikh (the
sultan of shaykhs)………It is accordingly no matter for surprise that the
conflict between royal and sufi claims of authority in this period of
the Delhi sultanate centred around the person of Shaykh Nizam-ud-din
compiled within a generation of his death, illustrate the tensions which
arose between the Shaykh and successive Sultans of Delhi.
1.              The reign of Sultan Feroz Shah Khalji preceded the
period of Nizam-ud-din's greatest influence in the capital city. Knowing
the reluctance of the Shaykh to meet him, the Sultan conspired with the
poet Amir Khusraw, who was both a Murid(disciple) of the Shaykh and
mushafdar (keeper of the Qur'an) of the Sultan himself. The Sultan
planned to go in the company of the poet and pay an unexpected call
upon the Shaykh. Amir Khusraw felt bound secretly to inform the Shaykh
of this plan. Nizam-ud-din left Delhi immediately for a visit to the
resting-place of his Pir (Predecessor) at Ajodhan.
2.              In the reign of 'Ala' al-Din Khalji the influence of
Nizam-ud-din had reached its apogee and "ulama'' shaykhs, maliks and
amirs were his servants." Envious people (hasidin) described the
lavishness of the hospitality which the Shaykh dispensed and brought
such reports about him as led the Sultan, who (we are told) had a
suspicious and vengeful nature, to fear that the Shaykh would bring
injury to his rule, of the same kind as "others of this group (ta'ifa)"
had brought to rulers in the past. 
            The Sultan accordingly devised a ruse to ascertain whether
the Shaykh had intentions of seizing power. He indicted a letter to him
to the effect that, since the Shaykh was the "Lord of Mankind" by whom
people's needs were fulfilled and since God had given temporal power
to the writer (the Sultan), it would be appropriate for him to submit
to the Shaykh's judgment in matters arising in the kingdom.
            The Sultan sent the letter by the hand of his son Khizr Khan
, who was murid of the Shaykh and was not aware of the background to
its dispatch. The shaykh took the letter in his hand and remarked
without studying it:
"What business have darweshs with the doings of Kinds? I am a darwesh
who has made a retreat from the city, and I am occupied in praying for
the King and for Muslims. If the King says anything further I will
leave this place also".
            The Sultan 'Ala al-Din was much pleased with the answer that
the prince brought back, and he remarked that he knew that all this had
nothing to do with "the Sultan of Shaykhs" (i.e. with Nizam-ud-din hims
elf), adding that this would have caused the ruin of his realm. 
            After this the Sultan announced his intention of visiting
the Shaykh, who sent a message back that "there is no need to come." He
himself was occupied with "prayer in absentia" (du'a-yi ghaybat) and
such prayer had peculiar efficacy. When after this message the Sultan
continued to press him, the Shaykh pronounced:
"The house of this weak one has two doors. If the Sultan enters by one
door, I will go out by the other!".
3.            According to the Siyar al-awliya, the youthful son and
successor of 'Ala' al-Din Khalji, Sultan Qutb al-Din Mubarak (reign.1316
-20 A.D) was hostile to Shaykh Nizam-ud-din for two reasons; The first 
was that the Sultan had built a congregational mosque (Masjid-i jami) at
 Siri (the most recent "New City" of Delhi). On the first Friday (after 
its completion) he summoned all the shaykhs and ulama to offer their 
prayers there. Nizam-ud-din sent back an answer that he had a mosque 
close to him, and that it was more fitting that he should offer his 
prayers there. 

            The second reason was that all the imams, shaykhs and other
 men of religion used to assemble on the first day of the month to offer
 their greetings to the Sultan. Shaykh Nizam-ud-din did not go, but used
 to send his servant Iqbal. This afforded an opportunity for "the 
envious" (hasidin) to stir up trouble. The young Sultan in his pride 
said that if Nizam-ud-din did not come on the first of the month he 
would have him brought forcibly.
            Nizam-ud-din went to the tomb of his mother, who was buried
in Delhi, and stated that the Sultan desired to injure him. If before
 the end of the month "his business was not settled" (kar-i o ba-kifayat
 na-rasad), he would not come to visit her then. The first of the month
 (it is explained) was the anniversary of the Shaykh's mother's death. 
After his return from this visit, as the first of the month drew near, 
Nizam-ud-din's followers became increasingly concerned; but the Shaykh
 deriving assurance from his submission of the matter to his mother, 
sat waiting for what the future had in store. On the last night before 
the beginning of the new month, Khusru Khan, the favourite of the Sultan
, treacherously cut off his head, throwing the Sultan's body down from 
the roof of the palace and setting the head on top of a lance to display
 it to the populace.
4.            The conflict between Shaykh Nizam-ud-din and Sultan 
Ghiyath al-Din Tughluq (reign. 1320-5 A.D) has passed into folk 
tradition. The background to the quarrel is not adequately explained in
 our earliest main source, the Siyar al-awliya, but the account of the 
early sixteenth- century Siyar al-arifin (whose author Jamali 
customarily devotes more attention than his predecessor to the topic of
 the maintenance of Khanaqahs) is plausible.(3) 

Nagendra Kr. Singh:
    Fariduddin's views on theology and mysticism were followed by his 
disciple Khwaja Nizam-ud-din Auliya (A.d. 1238-A.d.1325) of Budaun. He
 was the fourth spiritual descendant of Khwaja Mu'in-ud-din Chishti and
 was popularly known as ''Mahbub-i Ilahi''. He was a learned Sufi 
scholar and was well acquainted with the mystical works of Ghazali, 
Jilani and Suhrawardy. Because of his reputation as a theologian and an 
eminent scholar of 'hadith' or the Islamic Traditions, he was recognized
 as the spiritual leader of his age. He established a number of 
monasteries (khanaqahs) and worked for the propagation of the Chishtiyya
 sect of Sufis in India. His approach towards Sufism was basically 
theological and purely religious in character.
    Khawaja Nizam-ud-din divides entire knowledge into three categories.
 The first is 'taur his' or knowledge achieved through the senses. The 
second is, taur'aql' or intellectual knowledge gained through reason. 
This is the knowledge of the learned scholars ('ulama') and the 
theologians. The third is 'taur quds' or the intuitive knowledge which
 is experienced by the spiritualists. This is the most perfect form of
 knowledge because it is the direct immediate knowledge of Truth. 
    Closeness of God (qurbat) or realization of one's real identity with
 God is reached through the path of love. Nizam-ud-din classified love 
of God into two kind; ''Mahabbat-i dhat'' or love of Pure Divine Essence
 and ''Mahabbat-i sifat '' or love of the Attributes of God. Love of 
Divine Essence is a gift of God which is granted by God to His 
favourits. On the other hand, love of the Divine Attributes is an 
acquired love, experienced through 'mujahada' or the mystical efforts 
and purification of soul. Soul's purification means man's complete 
freedom from the bondage of appetitive desires related to the lower 
soul (nafs). Thus, true love of God is enjoyed by those seekers of God 
who renounce 

everything for the sake of their Beloved. The world is to be renounced 
and an attitude of perfect austerity and contentment is to be developed
 by the seeker of God. This is the sign of perfection of the path of 
love. It requires the lover's constant watch over his heart. According 
to Nizam-ud-din, the spiritual training in self-supervision (muraqaba) 
is absolutely essential for the novice for reaching the state of 
purification of soul which leads to the growth of love. The state of 
'ishq' or the passionate love is an expression of perfect love of God
 because now the lover of God wants nothing except his Beloved and 
shows a genuine desire for becoming one with Him.
    Love of God, for Nizam-ud-din, consists in living a life of devotion
 and self-sacrifice. The mission of the true lover of God is nothing but
 to recollect the names of the Beloved and to remember Him unceasingly.
 The moment he does not remember Him, he is separated from Him. As a 
sincere follower of the path of love, he experiences various spiritual 
stages of patience, trust in the beloved, resignation from everything 
else and fear of the Beloved. 
    The seeker after God, for Nizam-ud-din, should concentrate of six 
fundamental principles;
     First, he should lead a deserted and solitary life. This is 
essential for keeping a complete control over the lower self.
     Second, he should be pure at the time of prayers and ablution.
    Third,     he has to develop the habit of keeping a fast.     
Fourth,     everything is to be overlooked for the sake of God. 
    Fifth,     as a follower of the Divine path, he should     sincerely
 devote himself towards his spiritual Master (Shaykh).
     Sixth, he should regard God to be above everything in the two 
worlds.
     In other words, the seeker should completely refrain himself from 
everything which is not God and should devote himself entirely for 
abiding in God. 
    The first lesson of Sufism was not related to prayers or organized 
rituals, but began with the mastery of the maxim. Whatever you do not 
like to be done to yourself, do not wish it to happen to others. Wish 
for yourself what you wish other too. A further anecdote quoted by 
Nizam-ud-din depicts his belief that altruistic service to others is 
more meritorious than the performance of obligatory prayers. Laying 
great emphasis on renunciation, Nizam-ud-din illustrated this by 
referring to a holy man who believed that prayers fasting and 
supererogatory recitations were like a kettle, while the real thing was
 meat. He explained this allegory more fully by saying that meat was 
renunciation and such thing as praying and fasting were supplementary.
 Firstly, man should renounce the world and not concern himself with any
thing appertaining to it. Prayer and fasting were little concern, and 
love of the world made them worthless. According to Nizam-ud-din, Islam
 is not an empty round of prayers and rituals but highly ethical code.
(4) 

Annemarie Schimmel:
    Nizamuddin was one of the well-known theologians of Delhi; then, 
with his master, he studied Suhrawardi's 'Awarif al-ma'arif, the 
guidebook of almost all the Indo-Muslim mystics in the thirteenth and 
fourteenth centuries. After his third visit to Pakpattan, he was 
appointed khalifa in Delhi. The name of Nizamuddin Auliya', "Saints" 
as he came to be known out of respect, marks the high tide of mystical 
life in Delhi. The saint was a strict follower of the Prophetic sunna, 
a student of and commentator on the Prophetic traditions, and, at the 
same time, a friend of poets and musicians. 
    Barani, the Indo-Muslim historiographer of the early fourteenth 
century, claims that it was Nizamuddin's influence that inclined most 
of the Muslims in Delhi toward mysticism and prayers,

toward remaining aloof from the world. Books on devotion were frequently
 sold. No wine, gambling, or usury was to be found in Delhi, and people 
even refrained' from telling lies. It became almost fashionable, if we 
are to believe Barani, to purchase copies of the following books: 
Makki's Qut al-qulub and quite logically, Ghazzali's Ihya 'ulum ad-din;
 Suhrawardi's Awarif al-ma'arif and Hujwiri's Kashf al- mahjub; 
Kalabadhi's Kitab at-ta'arruf and its commentary; and the Risala of
 Qushayri. Also in Barani's list are Najmuddin Daya's Mirsad ul-'ibad,
 the letters of 'Aynu'l-Qudat Hamadhani, and, the only book written by 
an Indian Muslim, Hamiduddin Nagori's Lawami', a treatise by one of 
the early Chishti saints (d. 1274) noted for this poverty and his 
vegetarianism. These books may have given succor to the population in 
the confused political situation Nizamuddin Auliya (d. 1325), tenderly
 called by his followers Mahbub-i ilahi, God's beloved, outlived seven 
kings, and constant intrigues, bloodshed, and rebellions took place in 
Delhi and its environs during his life.
    During Nizamuddin's time, Sufism became a mass movement in 
northwestern India, and the moral principles laid down by the early 
Chishti saints did much to shape the ideas of the Muslim society in that
 part of the Subcontinent. A number of Punjabi tribes still claim to 
have been converted by Fariduddin Ganj-i Shakar.(5) 

Shiv Sharmaé
    Muhammad bin Ahmad bin Ali Bukhari was the real name of Khwaja Nizam
uddin Auliya, who was born in 1236 A.D. in Badaun. His grandparents 
hailed from Bukhara, but they settled in India. When he was aged five 
his father passed away. His mother, Zulaykha, was a highly pious and 
religious lady----and her piety and religious inclinations played a 
major role in casting impact on the Khwaja. She admitted him into a 
Madarsa, where he was imparted knowledge about the Qur'an, Islam and 
other scriptures. He became an adept in Arabic and Persian languages, 
learnt the Qur'an by heart, apart from 'Kalam' and 'Fiqh'. It goes to 
his credit that he acquired mastery in these languages and then got 
expertise in religion.
    As the Khawaja had already acquired requisite basic and preliminary
 knowledge, his mother brought him to Delhi for higher studies. He was 
placed under expert guidance of Maulana Kamaluddin and Maulana 
Shamsuddin, who trained him in religion, Fiqh and Kalam, apart from 
gaining mastery in logical process, discussions and debates, due to 
which attributes he was called as ''Mulla Nizamuddin Bahhas'', (that 
is the great debater). But the acquired the theological knowledge and 
other disciplines could not quench his thirst, as his ultimate aim was
 spirituality. He gained knowledge about the spirit (Tasawwuf) which was
 his ultimate aim, though its foundation was laid on theology. 
    As he was striving to gain spiritual sainthood he met Baba Farid, 
who was a great Chishti mystic. Khwaja Fariduddin Ganj Shakar, who 
welcomed and admitted him to his fold. The saint was so much impressed
 by the Khwaja that he placed his own cap on his disciple's head-an 
act which symbolizes a disciple's ordination into Chishti cult and 
order. Being a true follower of the saint, Nizammudin Auliya imbibed 
the spiritual traits, like purity, poetry, devotion, righteousness from
 his mentor. The mentor was so much impressed by his disciple that the 
saint appointed him as his 'Khalifa' and asked him to proceed to Delhi,
 so as to spread the message of (Islamic) Tasawwufism. As Nizamuddin 
Auliya reached Delhi, he established a 'Khanqah' here to disseminate the
 Chishti saint's message. 
    Nizamuddin Auliya worked very hard to spread the message and 
teachings or Baba Farid. Though such movements cannot be furthered 
without help from the state authorities, yet he tried his best not to 
avail of state help and patronage. So, Nizamuddin infused a new spirit 
of enlightenment into Baba Farid's organization. He established many 
'Khanqahs' and also motivated his ardent 

followers to establish more such 'Khanqahs' to further the cause of 
spread of his message. He also appointed about 700 'Khalifas' and sent 
them to various parts of India to spread his message and teachings.
    Nizamuddin Auliya laid emphasis on mass salvation, rather than 
individual salvation, the latter aspect being order of the previous 
times. This way he opened door for Islamic mysticism which is a land 
mark in the history of Islam. Since the spiritual message was new to 
the masses, it motivated them towards a spiritual regeneration. His 
only precondition was that disciples ('Murids') should have firm faith
 in his teachings and cult and also that no state label should be 
tagged on them. 
    There were certain preconditions to which every adherent of 
Nizamuddin Auliya had to subscribe, viz. 
    As a disciple must have, first of all faith in God's creatures and 
then he should worship as service and love for humanity is a forerunner
 of God worship. So, service to humanity took precedence over God's 
worship and spirituality. There should be no discrimination of one 
individual from another, àààààà, hence all persons are equal. 
    There were specific attributes of Nizammudin Auliya's teachings and 
his approach and concept were novel to the people. He also laid emphasis
 on help to other fellow - beings without any discrimination. His was a
 humanitarian and revolutionary approach. He also called upon his 
followers to inculcate feeling of compassion, and endeavour to remove
 hardships, sufferings and sin. He was very particular in his leanings.
 He used to tell that as Sun, Moon, water are Nature's bounties which 
are enjoyed by all the persons, in the same way his disciples should 
act without any favour or ill-will, and treat all human beings as 
equal ààààà. The disciples must also transcend all the man-made barriers
, such as caste, creed, colour, place, religion and also language. 
    Once, on being asked, Sheikh Moinuddin Chishti observed that the 
highest form of devotion (religious devotion), that could bring man 
nearer to God was to "Develop river-like generosity, Sun like bounty 
and earth like generosity" which connotes that when nature does not 
draw any dividing lines between one man and another, then why should 
not the human beings follow nature and its rules. 
    Nizammudin Auliya was known as the beloved ….. of God (Mabooh-e-
Ilahi) and king amongst the saints (Sultan-e-Auliya). The saint passed 
away at the age of 91 and was buried in Delhi, Amir Khusru was an 
ardent disciple of the saint. His mentor's death shocked him beyond 
measure so much that he was also breathed his last in 1325 A.D. Amir 
Khusru was a learned Persian scholar, was a poet par excellence and 
also a courtier. He wrote poems in Hindustani (known as Hindavi in those
 days).(6)

Marshall G.S. Hodgson:
    Many Sufis devoted much time not only to public preaching but also 
to helping others to work through moral problems as they came to them 
and to find as pure a life as they personally were capable of. In doing
 so, such Sufis sometimes made little even of difference in religious 
allegiance. Thus a figure like the great pir (master) Nizamuddin 
Awliya in the late thirteenth century in Delhi acted as father-confessor
 to Muslims of all classes, and even to some non-Muslims (he was ready 
to see some merit even in Hindu ways); he stressed forgiveness of 
enemies, insisted on moderation in enjoyment of the goods of this 
world (though not on the asceticism he himself practiced), stressed 
responsible behaviour in the work one had taken up (but forbade 
government employment, as involving too much corruption), and required 
explicit repentance if a follower slipped into sin. His was looked on 
as the next power in the kingdom after that of the sultan, and from 
Delhi he commended the free allegiance of Sufi pirs over much of 
northern India.(7)

P.M. Currie:
    The life of Nizam al-Din Awliya', as it is revealed in Fawa'id al-
Fu'ad and Siyar al-Awliya' closely conforms to the model given by the 
Kashf al-mahjub and the 'Awarif al-Ma'arif. Unlike some of his 
Suhrawardi contemporaries, Nizam al-Din avoided all involvement with 
the state. He ordered that it was not permitted for a dervish to 
accept any grant, stipend or favour from any sultan or official.(8)

K.S. Lal:
    The greatest disciple of Shaikh Farid, however, was Hazrat 
Nizamuddin Auliya (1236-1325A.d). He was born at Badaon. In 1258, he 
settled at Ghayaspur near Delhi where his shrine exists and now a 
railway station is named after him. The Shaikh had a large circle of 
disciples who hailed from all sections of society, rich and poor, noble
 and plebian. In him like of almost a century, Nizamuddin Auliya 
witnessed the reign of seven sultans, but he did not attend the darbar 
of any one of them. He was popularly known as Mahbub-i-Ilahi (Beloved 
of God). His popularity was due to his saintly virtues and service to 
humanity.(9)

Dr. Fauja Singh:
    Khwaja Qutab-ud Din Bakhtiyar Kaki was a contemporary of Iltutmish.
His disciple Shaikh Farid Shakarganj lived and died at Pakpattan midway
 between Multan and Lahore. One of his disciples was the famous saint, 
Nizam-ud Din Auliya who died in 1326.(10)

T.C.Rastogi:
    Nizamuddin's popularity among the masses earned him   a good number
 of titles among which Mehboob-i-Ilahi (beloved of God) and Sultanul 
Auliya (the king of saints) are popularly known. He passed away at the 
age of 91 and lies buried at Nizamuddin, now a suburb of Delhi. His 
tomb was raised to the dignity of a monastery by Khwaja Hasan Nizami, 
a famous leader of Jamiyat-i-Tablighul Islam, a combat organization for
 saving Muslims from the influences released by Christian missionary 
activities and Arya Samaj movements.(11)

Murray T.Titus:
    Nizam-ud-Din Awliya, whose real name was Muhammad bin Ahmad bin 
Daniyal al-Bukhari,was a native of Badaun, U.P., where he was born in
 A.D.1238. He soon became a favourite with his master, and was nominated
 by Baba Farid to be his Khalifa (successor)when he was twenty years of
 age, seven years before the death of Farid-ud-Din. During his life, 
he enjoyed the society of many eminent contemporaries, some of whom 
became his disciples. The most noted of these were the poets Amir 
Khusru and Amir Hasan Dihlawi, and historian Diya-ud-Din Barani. He 
died in the year A.D.1325 and his tomb is in the suburbs of Delhi, 
surrounded by the graves of many of his followers, is still visited by 
devout pilgrims from near and far.(12)

 

References

1.    Arnold, Sir Thomas, The Preaching of Islam (Lahore Shirkat-i-
Qualam, 1956). P.291. 2.      Lawrence, Bruce B., Notes from a Distant 
Flute Sufi Literature in Pre-Mughal India (Tehran: Imperial Iranian 
Academy of Philosophy,1978)pp.24-25 
3.    Simon Digby, The Sufi Shaykh and the Sultan: A Conflict of Claims
 to Authority in Medieval India, (Iran, 1990â, vol.28 (1990).pp.71-73

4.      Singh, Nagendra Kr, Islamic Mysticism in India (New Delhi: A.P.H
. Publishing corporation,1996)pp.60-62
5.    Schimmel, Annemarie, Mystical Dimensions of Islam (Lahore: Sang-e-
Meel Publications,2003)pp.348-349
6.    Shiv Sharma, Philosophy of Islam (A Critical study of Islamic 
Religion: Practices and Principal) (New Delhi: Diamond Pocket Books, 
2002)pp.153-156
7.     Hodgson, Marshall G.S., The Venture of Islam (Chicago and London:
 The University of Chicago Press,1974) vol.2, p.208
8.     Currie, P.M, The Shrine and Cult of Mu'in al-din Chishti of 
Ajmir (Delhi: Oxford University press,1989) p.61
9.     Lal, K.S., Early Muslims in India (Lahore: Iqbal Publications, 
n.d.)p.124
10.     Fauja Singh (ed.), History of the Punjab (Patiala:   Punjabi 
University,1972), vol.3, p.309
11.    Rastogi,T.C., Islamic Mysticism: Sufism(London and Hague: East-
West  Publications,1982)p.6
12.    Titus, Murray T, Islam in India and Pakistan (Karachi: Royal 
Book Company,1990)pp.125-7